Andrew Martin, Fred Whitford
A review of the basic elements of modern validity theory and an argument-based approach to validation clarifies the principle reason for a deliberative, job-oriented approach to pesticide applicator certification test development: appropriate score interpretation and use. When more meaning is imputed to scores than is warranted, stakeholders may be misled and program credibility can suffer. Special care should be taken to avoid making predictive claims for certification test scores. Caution is also advised when associating the concept of "competence" with score results.
Keywords: test, validation, scores, pesticide, applicator, certification
Amy E. Brown
The US Environmental Protection Agency is considering allowing pesticide labels to indicate comparative safety through logos or statements. The objectives are facilitating informed purchaser choices and moving the market toward “safer” products. The elements of the system will need to be carefully chosen to accomplish the program objectives without resulting in unwanted consequences such as resistance development, inappropriate choices, or negation of the protections provided by current label precautions and restrictions.Full Text: 43-172-1-PB.pdf
Steven Reddy, Ronda Hirnyck, Jerry Neufeld, Lisa Downey-Blecker, Luis Urias, Tony McCammon
The native language of many pesticide handlers and workers in the Idaho Treasure Valley is Spanish. These Spanish speaking workers need continuing opportunities to increase their knowledge of proper pesticide safety as it relates to row crop, orchard production, and landscaping pest management. In 2006, University of Idaho Extension Educators began providing annual pesticide safety education program in Spanish. The programs have been attended by 30-50 Spanish speaking students. Pre and post surveys have shown knowledge increases in use of personal protective equipment, sprayer calibration, pesticide spills, insect scouting, long term effects of pesticide exposure, and employer responsibilities.Full Text: 35-187-1-PB.pdf
Therese Schooley, Michael Weaver, Donald Mullins, Matthew Eick
Lead arsenate (PbHAsO4) was first used in apple orchards in the 1890s to combat the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), a destructive insect pest. This pesticide was very popular among farmers because of its effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, and persistence. Over the next 60 years the frequency and amount of lead arsenate applications increased. Increased use eventually led to development of pesticide resistance, which started the downward spiral of decreased efficacy requiring growers to increase rates and application frequency. Growers eventually switched to more viable alternates such as DDT. The basic nature of the elements in lead arsenate and its widespread use contributed to the contamination of thousands of acres across the United States. As more landowners become aware of the lead arsenate issue, questions arise about the potential risks to human and environmental health. The story of lead arsenate provides rich insight into pesticide application practices of the past and a benchmark by which to judge current practices in pesticide safety education.
Keywords: lead, arsenate, arsenic, history, soil, contamination, human, health, Virginia, apple, fruit, pest, management, pesticide, safety, environment
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